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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. 358 Reviews of Books The History of South Carolina tender the Royal Government, 1719— 1776. By Edward McCrady, President of the Historical Society of South Carolina. (New York : The Macmillan Co. 1899. Pp. xxviii, 847.) Prior to the issue of this volume the only histories of South Carolina which contained anything of importance relating to the period of royal government were those of Hewatt and Ramsay. Of these the former was published in 1779, the latter in 1809. Both of them purported to be general histories of the province from its settlement to or beyond the period of independence. Hewatt lived near the time of some of the events which he related, and is said to have derived a part of his infor- mation from Lieutenant-Governor Bull. Ramsay, so far as political his- tory is concerned, copied Hewatt though he also embodied in his work original material concerning ecclesiastical, medical, legal, fiscal, agricul- tural, and commercial affairs, natural history and literature. Hewatt de- voted to the period under review 277 pages. Of this nearly the whole was filled with matter relating to climate, topography, social life and cus- toms, Indian relations, military affairs, and events connected with the settlement of Georgia. Not enough space to make even a respectable sketch was devoted to the system of government, or to the internal polit- ical history of the province. No attention was paid to the development of legislation, to the conflicts between the executive and the legislature or between the upper and lower house, to the issues of paper money or to the land system. Hewatt did not have access to the archives from which he could have obtained information of this kind, and probably did not seek access to them. Ramsay devoted one chapter mainly to an account of the paper money, and gave a few disconnected facts about constitu- tional history, but his account of the agricultural system contains nothing of value to the student of institutions. Of the place and importance of the royal province in the system of British colonial government, of the special features of South Carolina as an example of a royal province, of the pecu- liar relations in which it stood toward the mother country, one will find only hints in these volumes, and those neither many nor very important. By noting thus the great defects of the older literature on the subject we shall the better be able to measure the excellence of Mr. McCrady' s volume and the service which he has rendered to the history of his state. The book consists of three somewhat distinct parts : the history of the period from its beginning to 1765; a series of seven chapters on the social conditions of the province at and before 1765 ; the history of the last decade of royal government. The chapters on social conditions contain much interesting and valuable matter relating to the merchants, physicians, bench and bar, schools and general social customs of the province. The choice of subjects treated here would seem to have been suggested by Ramsay, but the material presented is much more extensive and valuable. At the same time much that relates to social history is pre- McCrady : History of South Carolina 359 sented in the other parts of the volume, as the observations on commer- cial growth, value of lands and development of the press in Chap. IX.; statements quoted at length from Governor Glen's letters in Chap. XIV.; a good deal of the material relating to the settlement of the upper coun- ties, to the negroes, to epidemics and other calamitous visitations to which reference is made in various parts of the volume. But a fatal defect in the author's treatment of the social side of his subject appears in the fact that he has devoted no systematic attention to the land system. In agricultural communities, like those existing in the American colonies, this is a matter of prime importance. Though Mr. McCrady has col- lected much material illustrating the social history of South Carolina in the eighteenth century, the reader will not find in his book an altogether clear picture of the type of society which existed there. The interaction between social and political development he does not seem to have fully considered. In tracing the political history of the period the author adheres strictly to the order of time. Wars with the Spanish and the Indians, the succession of governors, controversies between the different branches of the legislature, and finally the events which preceded the opening of the Revolution, are presented in chronological order, in a succession of chapters whose only headings are the dates which fix their limits. This fact, when taken in connection with the author's treatment of social his- tory, shows that he belongs to the same class of historians as his two predecessors, that he has not radically departed from their methods, though he has greatly surpassed them in the amount and value of the ma- terial which he presents. In his account of Indian relations he closely follows Hewatt, occasionally borrowing a succession of paragraphs with only slight verbal changes (pp. 75 and 102). One of the most thorough and satisfactory chapters in the book is that in which the history of Oglethorpe's expedition against St. Augustine in 1740 is given, the ma- terial for which is largely taken from a report of a committee of the general assembly of South Carolina on the expedition. The subject of the settlement of the upper parts of the province is treated in an interest- ing manner, but somewhat briefly. The superiority of this book to any which has preceded it appears most clearly in the treatment of the strug- gles, between the different components of the legislature. The contro- versy over the issue of paper money which continued at intervals from 1724 to 1728; the conflict of 1733 over the claim of the lower house to the right to commit one who was not a member and detain him in prison in spite of a writ of habeas corpus ; the struggles of the two houses over the insistence of the council on its right to amend money bills, are ex- plained with considerable detail and in a fair and impartial spirit. Pre- sumably the author might have made his treatment of the constitutional history of the province more full, had he made greater use of the jour- nals of the two houses. But his references to these are few, and for his account of relations with the home government he apparently relies on vol. v. — 24 360 Reviews of Books the calendars of documents in the Public Record Office relating to South Carolina, which were published years ago by the state historical society, rather than on the documents themselves, of which full copies exist at Columbia. But the student will find scattered through the volume a good deal of historical exposition, and of sound reasoning thereon, both of which relate directly to the royal province as an institution of govern- ment. Mr. McCrady treats the events which preceded the opening of the Revolution with an even and impartial hand. This is quite consistent with the attitude which he has maintained toward all the conflicting parties which have passed in review before him in the earlier periods of his history. After assuming a position in reference to the Stamp Act and the other more general issues of the period which is in substantial agreement with that held by Lecky, he dwells at some length on the measures adopted in support of Massachusetts, New York and Virginia subsequent to the pass- age of the Townshend Acts. Of these the most important in South Caro- lina was the non-importation agreement. A detailed account is given of the origin of this among the mechanics and merchants of Charles- ton, of the vehement opposition made to its enforcement by Dray- ton and others, and especially of the controversy over the matter in the Gazette. ' ' It was indeed a grave and serious question, ' ' says the author, "whether the colony of South Carolina had as yet received any such wrong at the hands of the mother-country as warranted this measure of non-importation. ' ' In connection with the history of this episode and of the beginning of the difficulties with the Regulators the author finds opportunity to draw an admirable character-sketch of William Henry Drayton. Another interesting fact suggested by Drayton's career is the change in the personnel of the Council. In the earlier years of royal government, natives of the province are said to have held the large major- ity of seats, but as the Revolution approached it had come to be filled mainly with placemen from England. It would be important to know if that were generally the case throughout the colonies. The rise of revo- lutionary government and the decline of royal power are traced till the close of the administration of Lieutenant-Governor Bull in June, 1775, and the arrival of his successor Lord William Campbell. At that point Mr. McCrady considers that royal government came to an end, and that Governor Campbell's efforts to recover the power which had been lost constitute a part of the history of the Revolution. This he reserves for future treatment. The reviewer has found but few errors in this volume and those of comparatively slight importance. In point of style he considers it su- perior to the author's first volume. For its thoroughness and breadth of view it is worthy of high praise. It is not specifically a study of a royal province as an institution, but a general history of the province during the period under review. As such, and when regarded scientific- ally, it is open to some criticism respecting the selection and arrange- ment of material. Had the author limited himself more strictly to the Hazard: Narragansett Friends' Meeting 361 history of political development and to a study of social forces in their bearing upon that, he might have given the reader a clearer idea of the goal toward which events were tending. But the work is so excellent in itself, and is to such an extent superior to any of its predecessors, so far as they relate to the early eighteenth century, that the reader must heart- ily welcome it, and express the hope that Mr. McCrady will soon give to the public the result of his researches into the period of the Revolution. Herbert L. Osgood. The Narragansett Friends' Meeting in the XVIII. Century, with a chapter on Quaker Beginnings in Rhode Island. By Caroline Hazard. (Boston and New York : Houghton, Mifflin and Co. 1899. Pp. vi, 189.) The distinguished President of Wellesley College has thrown an ar- row — not in Parthian malice, but in loyal affection — toward her native Narragansett, as she leaves its laurel groves for the hills of Massachusetts. The book is chiefly drawn from eight folio volumes of records belonging to the mens' meeting, with three volumes treating of the doings of the women, who were certainly an important constituent in the Friends' sys- tem of living. She does not tell us where the original records are de- posited. Besides this matter and the preliminary essay on early Rhode Island Quakerism, there is an interesting reprint of the Quaker's Sea Journal, Being a True Relation of a Voyage to New England, Performed by Robert Fowler of the Town of Burlington in Yorkshire, Anno i6jp. This tract was recently copied in the British Museum by Miss Hazard with her own hand. It is an account of the voyage of the first consider- able number of Quakers, and their vessel the Woodhouse which ran into the harbor of Rhode Island in the summer of 1657. The well-known story of Mary Dyer is treated at length. We are not to forget that there was an irreconcilable conflict. The Puritans drove out the Quakers, persecuting them according to the methods of the time, in obedience to a high motive, as they conceived it. Ecclesi- astical authority knew no toleration, except in the precincts of Roger Williams, and his influence did not extend far as yet. On the other hand, Mary Dyer went back voluntarily to her martyrdom. Our author well says, " She had tasted the glories of martyrdom, and could not rest till she was counted worthy to suffer to the end. If, in our modern spirit, we inquire what her husband and children said to her sacrifice not only of herself but of them, and the suffering and pain she brought them, her grave face, with its rapt expression, rises to rebuke us. This life was nothing, the next all, in those stern heroic times " (p. 38). As in every conflict of the spirit with material force, there was a bane and antidote, which could not be rendered in statement, nor controlled by statute. A woman was whipped at Weymouth. " After whipping, the woman kneeled down, and prayed the Lord to forgive those persecu- tors ; which so touched a woman that stood by, that she said, ' surely she could not have done this if it had not been by the spirit of the Lord.' "